If you have read some of the blogs online talking about material value then you would know that the queen is the strongest piece, therefore you should prioritize it. But what if the exchange involves 3 minor pieces? Is it worth giving up a queen for such a material value?
As a chess player here is what I know about this:
3 minor pieces are better than a single queen in most positions, this is because their combined range outcompetes a single queen. The 3 minor pieces can cover more squares (or escort a passed pawn), and they can attack and defend more efficiently.
This question is more complicated than it seems so I don’t think a quick statement can really paint the whole picture, it will need a little bit of discussion. Learning about this can surely make you stronger player, keep on reading if you are interested.
Three minor pieces are worth more than a single queen
Generally the three minor pieces are better than a lonely queen since they can cover more squares all at once, this is especially true if the three minor pieces are active. If we are going to put three minor pieces and the queen side-by-side, the three minor pieces will have more range.
It doesn’t matter which minor piece combination we are talking about, it will have more cover potential than a lonely queen. This means a lot more range, the 3 minor pieces will have a better potential than the queen if they’re able to get on the most active squares.
They can attack and defend more squares especially if we are talking about the endgame, the three minor pieces can apply some key checks on the enemy king while protecting the friendly king at the same time.
The endgame after all is when the kings can the strongest yet also the most vulnerable (if the king is an open position). The 3 minor pieces can keep the friendly king safe while having opportunity to attack the enemy king themselves.
But if we are getting serious at what really separates the three minor pieces than a lonely queen, it is probably their ability to properly escort a passed pawn. They can escort the passed pawn more easily while still protecting the king at the same time.
The queen can only choose whether to escort a passed pawn or defend their friendly king, in most positions doing both is not possible. Having three minor pieces is more than enough to escort a passed pawn and defend the friendly king, it will be easier to play.
But with all rules there is an exception to this.
A queen is worth more than 3 minor pieces if it is more active
There are situations where the queen is more than the worth of 3 minor pieces, the only situation where this applies is when the three said minor pieces are not developed well. A well-centralized queen can maneuver more quickly and even win some pawn/pieces.
You must not be paying attention to your chess class if you don’t not understand the capability of a well-centralized queen, it can be really effective. The lonely queen definitely has the potential to be more active than three minor pieces, although it will be more difficult (and rare).
A very active queen can be dangerous because it has the capability to attack multiple squares with only one move, this means you can easily win free pawn/pieces with a double attack. If the three 3 minor pieces are not well coordinated they will be outplayed.
Although if all things are fair (meaning both the lonely queen and 3 minor pieces are active), I have no doubt that the three minor pieces can beat a single queen.
They can just cover more things at the same time and if played correctly (very important!) will be way better than the queen.
Activity after all is the name of the game, if a lower prioritized piece is more active than a stronger one, it will always be better. Not much difference here either, plus the effect will even be more observable since the difference between a queen and three minor pieces are not that huge.
A queen is worth more than 3 minor pieces if there are available checks
Another situation where a queen can be better than three minor pieces is when the opposing king is exposed, the queen will have many resources using the free checks which can open opportunities.
Do not get me wrong, even with an exposed king the 3 minor pieces should be better but it will be harder to convert.
I think this is one of those theoretical vs practical kind of scenarios, although in theory the three minor pieces will still beat a lonely queen, the players may not play the game correctly.
An engine might convert a position since it can play almost perfectly, but a human might not be able to do the same thing. So although in theory one position is better than the other, it doesn’t mean that it will actually be better in practical scenarios.
This applies to the 1 queen vs. three minor pieces situation, although the three minor pieces will beat a single queen anytime of the day it is not the same when the king is wide open. There will be more opportunities to commit a mistake, the game will be harder to convert.
I’d say that the position is much or less still equal if the king is wide open (of the one with 3 minor pieces), there are just more opportunities for the one who has the three minor pieces to commit a mistake/blunder.
3 minor pieces, pair of bishop, pair of knight, worth of a single queen
I think this is a good statement that i have to repeat, what if all things are equal will the 3 minor pieces beat a single queen? The answer is simple, yes, the three minor pieces can beat the queen.
If all things are equal and the three minor pieces are developed decently (not even very active) then a single queen should be inferior, the 3 minor pieces should be capable of covering more squares. This is especially true if the two of the minor pieces were a bishop pair.
There are even scenarios where a bishop pair dominates a queen entirely (Fischer vs. Larsen) since they are too developed in their own right. However it really doesn’t matter even if we are talking about a knight pair, they can jump over unpredictably and fork something out of the blue.
If both kings are wide open and we battle the three minor pieces against a queen (to make things fair) then the three minor phases will be slightly better.
The position will only be equal if the one who has the three minor pieces has a wide open king and the one with the queen has a protected king. When all things are fair the 3 minor pieces beat a single queen.
The value of three minor pieces will almost always outcompete a single queen (it doesn’t even matter which minor piece combination it is). Of course there are factors to consider like piece activity, exposure of the kings, and something similar, but that also apply to other winning positions.
Chess is complicated, it is not clear and dry which side will be better, however, if we are talking about scenarios where all things are fair then the three minor pieces got this one. I sure hope you can apply this in practical games! Thank you for reading.